Day 2 | Technical Session 2 | January 28, 2021: 3 pm to 5:30 pm

Theme: Open Science and Scholarly Communication

According to John Taylor “eScience is about global collaboration in key areas of science and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it.” This statement perhaps captures the two key components of eScience⎯global scientific collaboration and the cyber infrastructure required to facilitate such a collaboration. Global collaboration takes many forms, but one of the consensus that has also emerged from the eScience initiatives and programs is that collaboration should aim to be “open”. The rationale behind Open Science is complex but it primarily a socio-economic perspective. From an economic point of view scinetific products are essentially public good and from a sociological point of view scientic research is a product of social collaboration and its ownership belongs to the community.

According to the European Commission Open Science represents a new approach to the scientific process based on cooperative work and new ways of diffusing knowledge by using digital technologies and new collaborative tools. The OECD defines Open Science as:  “to make the primary outputs of publicly funded research results ⎯publications and the research data⎯publicly accessible in digital format with no or minimal restriction.” But those who are advancing the Open Science movement believe that it is more than that. Open Science is about extending the principles of openness to the whole research cycle, fostering sharing and collaboration as early as possible thus entailing a systemic change to the way science and research is done. In essence eScience is transitioning to be Open Science.

Open Science is often viewed as an umbrella term that involves various movements aiming to remove the barriers for sharing any kind of output, resources, methods or tools, at any stage of the research process including open access to publications, open research data, open source software, open collaboration, open peer review, open notebooks, open educational resources, open monographs, citizen science, or research crowdfunding.

According to some the first revolution in opening science began with the emergence of scholarly journals in the 17th century when science moved forward from the ‘anagram’ based scholarly communication. Thus, some see open science as a continuation of the revolution brought about by the emergence of scientific journals as a scholarly communication system. For some it is about science fully realising the norms of “the Republic of Science” that were so famously articulated by Merton and compactly summarised by the mnemonic “CUDOS”: Communalism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, Originality, and Skepticism through Open Science.

This session “Open Science and Scholarly Communication” will explore the connections, commonalities, and challenges in the components and characteristics of science, open science, scholarly communication and the movement from open access to open data to open science and perhaps to the emergence of Popper’s ideal of Open Society.

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