Since the birth of modern science in the 16th century with the publication of the book “De revolutionibusorbiumcoelestium libri VI” by Copernicus in 1543—a major event in the history of science — every new paradigm in science has engendered new scholarly communication infrastructures. The scientific revolution set in motion by Copernicus and further augmented by Kepler, Galileo, and later Newton and others lead to the emergence of scientific societies which in turn resulted in establishing the ‘scientific journal’ as a critical element of the life cycle of science. Since then, the alliance between libraries, scholarly communication system, and the scientific enterprise has grown steadily and metamorphosed in varied ways.
With the emergence of computational and data-intensive research leading to eScience, which often is referred to as the 4th Paradigm in science, and open access movement leading to open science, this age-old alliance is being reimagined. It needs to be fortified, and diverse ways of collaboration are to be orchestrated. This Conclave on “eScience and digital libraries: building communities for collaboration”, purports to bring together scientists; data/information scientists; IT professionals; library and information professionals; and the information industry to identify opportunities and challenges in building the cyber infrastructure and the communities for collaboration for advancing eScience.